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Part I Biblical Scroll links to Bible 1. Part II Electronic Bible links to Part 2.
The Bible: The Book That Bridges the Millennia

Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament

Biblical scrolls

The Ethiopian Orthodox church has the largest canon, which comes in two forms-- a narrower and a wider canon.

The narrower Old Testament canon includes the books of the Hebrew Bible, all of the Apocrypha, and Jubilees, 1 Enoch, and Joseph ben Gurion's (Josippon's) medieval history of the Jews and other nations."1


Old Testament

(Ethiopic Narrower Canon)

  1. Genesis
  2. Exodus
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy
  6. Enoch
  7. Jubilees
  8. Joshua
  9. Judges
  10. Ruth
  11. 1 Samuel
  12. 2 Samuel
  13. 1 Kings
  14. 2 Kings
  15. 1 Chronicles
  16. 2 Chronicles
  17. Ezra
  18. Nehemiah
  19. 3rd Ezra
  20. 4rth Ezra
  21. Tobit
  22. Judith
  23. Esther
    (includes additions to Esther)
  24. 1 Macabees
  25. 2 Macabees
  26. 3 Macabees
  27. Job
  28. Psalms
    (+ Psalm 151)
  29. Proverbs
    (Proverbs 1-24)
  30. Täagsas
    (Proverbs 25-31)
  31. Wisdom of Solomon
  32. Ecclesiastes
  33. Song of Solomon
  34. Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)
  35. Isaiah
  36. Jeremiah
  37. Baruch
    (includes Letter of Jeremiah)
  38. Lamentations
  39. Ezekiel
  40. Daniel
  41. Hosea
  42. Amos
  43. Micah
  44. Joel
  45. Obadiah
  46. Jonah
  47. Nahum
  48. Habakkuk
  49. Zephaniah
  50. Haggai
  51. Zecariah
  52. Malachi

Adapted from Hans Peter Rüger, "The Extent of the Old Testament Canon," The Bible Translator 40 (1989), pp. 301-303; and Bruce Metzger, "Bible," Oxford Companion to the Bible, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 79. Metzger adds one more book to the list above: Joseph ben Gurion's (Josippon's) medieval history of the Jews and other nations. See also: The Biblical Canon Of The Ethiopian Orthodox Church Today.



For Further Study

Chart: Comparison of the Roman Catholic and Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testaments

See Also: Whose Canon? Which Bible?

   1. Bruce Metzger, "Bible," Oxford Companion to the Bible, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), p. 79.