Corinthians Study Links
| Art | Corinth & Rome | Dress & Hair | Early Texts | Maps |
| Paul | Churches | Sermons | Timelines | Women |Youth |
Disclaimer: Some links jump to outside sites for further information on Corinthians, the Bible, Paul, and other resources. Links do not constitute an endorsement by the Women's Division of the information on other web sites. External web sites offer us diverse perspectives; afford us an opportunity to compare them to United Methodist positions; and, encourage us to critically analyze the issues raised by the Corinthians web pages.
Art and Architecture
- Apollo: An Infrastructure for Teaching the Ancient Mediterranean and Medieval Worlds
A searchable database of non-copyrighted images and links
- Art Collections Links Page, Diotima, Materials for the Study of Women and Gender in the Ancient World
- Coins and Portraits of Nero
- Corinth, Perseus Project, Tufts University
database, history of Corinth, photos, archaeological emphasis
- Corinth, Atlantic Baptist Seminary, New Brunswick, Canada
Photos of major historical sites of Corinth, including the agora, bema, south stoa, theater and more
- The Corinth Computer Project, University of Pennsylvania
Reconstructing the city plan and landscape of Roman Corinth
- Corinth Excavations, The American School of Classical Studies at Athens
- Dr. J's Illustrated Greek Theater
Photographs of ruins of Greek theaters, descriptions of the parts of them, and the staging of Greek plays.
- Early Roman Empire (Romano-Hellenistic Classicism), Images from History
See some art depicting men and women from different classes (1st century B.C.E. - 2nd century C.E.)
- Greece (Photos of Architecture), Tulane University
- Hellenistic Greek Sculpture, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
- Life in Ancient Greece Reflected in the Coinage of Corinth, National Numismatics Collection, Smithsonian Institute
- Portrait of Paul in Ephesus Cave, Zenit News Agency, May 11, 2000
Inside the cave, there are paintings depicting the Transfiguration and a sequence inspired in the Acts of the Apostles, refering to St. Thecla and St. Paul's preaching. Paul's portrait is one of the best preserved frescoes in the cave.
- Roman Art and Architecture, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs
Corinth and the Roman World
- Ancient Corinth Hellenic Ministry of Culture, Greece
- Corinth, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
Background about Corinth in Paul's time that is part of a clickable map.
- Corinth: A Brief History by Allan Brockway and Thomas Price
A brief history of Corinth and Paul's work there in addition to contemporary photos of excavations in Corinth. Thomas Price earned his Ph.D. in theology from Boston University and worked for the General Board of Church and Society for 10 years. Allan Brockway has been a "specialist" in Jewish Christian Relations with the World Council of Churches in Geneva and an educator in Judaism and Christianity at the Selly Oak Colleges and the University of Birmingham (England).
- The Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at Isthmia by Elizabeth R. Gebhard, Greek Sanctuaries, New Approaches edited by Nanno Marinatos and Robin Hagg (Routledge: 1993), pp.154-177.
This scholarly article is about the sanctuary of Poseidon on the Isthmus of Corinth, the Corinthian's most important religious foundation outside the city. This article also has information about various myths concerning the beginning of the Isthmian games. A dominant one was that Sisyphos began them as funeral games for the infant Melikertes-Palaimon, who had drowned and whose body was returned to the Isthmian beach by one of Poseidon's dolphins.
- Greek Religion, University of Pennslvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
General background, artifacts, and information about the artifacts
- The Isthmian Games and the Sanctuary of Poseidon in the Early Empire by Elizabeth R. Gebhard, Journal of Roman Archaeology, Supplemental Series Number 8, Ann Arbor, MI 1993.
The aim of this scholarly paper is to address certain questions about the Isthmian Sanctuary in the 1st and 2nd c. A.D. A long scholarly paper exploring questions such as " "When [after Corinth was re-founded] did the festival return to its traditional home at the Isthmian Sanctuary of Poseidon?"
- Kenchreai, Eastern Port of Corinth, by Hector Williams, University of British Columbia
A substantial history, variety of historical maps, including a city plan, and contemporary photos of Cenchreae.
- Pausanias, Greece
2nd century description and history of Corinth.
- Strabo, Geography
Late 1st century B.C.E.-Early 1st century C.E. description and history of Corinth.
- Aspects of the Mediterranean Social World, Resource Pages for Biblical Studies
- The Burning of Rome, 64. A.D.
Historical background, pictures, and an excerpt (in English translation) from the historian Tacitus' , The Annals of Imperial Rome.
- De Imperatoribus Romanis: An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Emperors
DIR is an on-line encyclopedia on the rulers of the Roman empire from Augustus (27 BC-AD 14) to Constantine XI Palaeologus (1449-1453).
- The Illustrated History of the Roman Empire
Ten megabytes of information on this site, which includes a children's section
- Hellenistic / Roman Religion & Philosophy, The Jewish Roman World of Jesus by Dr. James D. Tabor
- Jews and Christians in a Roman World, Archaeology, Archaeological Institute of America
Highlights from papers by Richard A. Horsley, research professor in the classics and religion department at the University of Massachusetts, and Susan E. Alcock, associate professor of classical studies at the University of Michigan, delivered at a symposium in 1999 at the University of Pennsylvania.
- Religion in the Roman World, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
An article by Marriane Bonz, managing editor of Harvard Theological Review. Early Christian preachers such as the Apostle Paul brought the gospel about Jesus Christ to an empire already crammed full of deities. She gives background on these deities.
- The Romans, BBC Education
This site is aimed at Primary Teachers and older primary students interested in Roman History.
- Slavery 'Worse Now Than under Roman Empire' by Ian Burrell, The Independent, December 2, 2000
Kevin Bales, a professor of sociology calculates that 27 million people now live as slaves, more than in the Roman Empire or at the height of the transatlantic slave trade.
Dress and Hairstyles of Greece and Rome
Note: Since Corinth was a Roman colony, the web sites relating to Rome will have information that is closer to the dress and hairstyles of Corinth than the ancient Greek sites.
- Ancient Greek Female Costume by J. Moyr Smith (1882)
A slide show of 111 images, including women wearing veils over their heads or on their shoulders (See slides 14, 27, 47, 57, 6, 78, 80, 89 ). These are based on art created centuries before Paul and before Rome conquered Greece.
- Children of the Roman Imperial Family (13 B.C.E.), LacusCurtius
The gravitas of the ancient Romans, which they deemed a great virtue, is nowhere more tangible than in their attitude toward children. The pendants the children are wearing
are called bullae.
- Ovid: On the Painting of the Face, by the famous Roman poet (43 B.C.-A.D. 17)
"Learn, ladies, what care can enhance your appearance, and how your beauty may be preserved...." Also in Latin.
- Paul and Corinthian Women's Head Coverings, Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church
If Paul wanted the Corinthian women prophets to wear head coverings, he may have been asking them to follow the customs of the dominant Greco-Roman culture.
- Paul and Corinthian Women's Hairstyles, Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church
A look at the archaeological evidence for women's hairstyles worn in Paul's day to help understand his comments about the Corinthian women prophets.
- Roman Clothes
A brief summary of clothes worn by women, men, children, and persons of different classes.
- Roman Hair and Headdress
Plates of women and men from Thomas Hope's Costumes of the Ancients, 1812
- Rome: Republic to Empire by Barbara McManus, VRoma Web Site
Of interest for our purposes are some of the articles on civilization and culture, including Roman classes, the Roman House and Roman Clothing:
- Roman Life
Information on clothing including how to make a:
- History of Roman Costume, Villa Ivilla
An attractive site that includes sections on women's, men's, children's clothing, and more.
- Tertullian: On the Apparel of Women, Christian Classics Ethereal Library
- Tertullian: On the Veiling of Virgins, Christian Classics Ethereal Library
Early Christian Texts
- Acts of Paul and Thecla, Translated probably by Jeremiah Jones (1693-1724)
This version ends with Thecla's assumption in Syria (see below).
- Acts of Paul and Thecla, Ante-Nicene Fathers to A.D. 325, Volume VIII,
Alexander Roberts and James Donaldson, editors
This version ends with Thecla's dying in Rome (see above).
- Corinthians (Color-Coded), The Jewish Roman World of Jesus by Dr. James D. Tabor
Most scholars believe that Corinthians 1 and 2 are packet or collection of as many as a half-dozen letters. This web site uses color-coding to show one concept where the different letters appear in the Corinthian correspondence that is now in the Bible.
- Acts of Xanthippe, Polyxena, and Rebecca
A religious novella written around 270, similar in form, and to some extent in matter, to the Greek romances of the time period. It is based upon the belief that St. Paul visited Spain. The author also knew the Acts of Paul and Thecla.
- First Clement, Apostolic Fathers, trans. and ed., J. B. Lightfoot
The First Epistle of Clement to the Corinthians, Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I
- The Manuscripts of Paul
Technical information. The tables on this page list all non-fragmentary Pauline manuscripts cited regularly in at least one of the major recent critical apparati (Merk, Nestle-Aland, Nestle-Aland, UBS3, UBS4).
- The Apostle Paul's Shipwreck by Jefferson White
History provides us with more objective evidence supporting the biblical record of that shipwreck than for any other event in the New Testament.
- Corinth: Map of the City, 150 A.D. from the University of Pennsylvania
For a description of the items on the map, go to http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~dromano/cplanfr.html.
- Jerusalem as Jesus Saw It, Time, April 16, 2001
A reconstruction of Jerusalem during Jesus' lifetime, based on archaeological and historical evidence as well as speculation.Roll over a number to see the site as it exists today.
- The Journeys of Paul, Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church
The four journeys of Paul according to the Book of Acts.
- Paul's Aegean Mission, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
A map of the communities that Paul founded in the Mediterranean basin.
- Roman Empire, Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church
Shows the extent of the Roman Empire at three times in history: at the death of Caesar (44 B.C.E.), at the death of Augustus (14 C.E.), and at the death of Marcus Aurelius (180 C.E.).
- The Roman Empire
A series of maps that allow you to look at different stages of the Roman Empire in different areas
- The Roman Forum: An Ancient Marketplace
Award-winning site by three students of De Grundel High School in Hengelo, Netherlands. This page has a clickable reconstruction of most of the buildings of the forum in Rome. The site has lots of information and quizzes.
- The Spread of Christianity, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
Shows the spread of Christianity to cities in the first, second, and third centuries.
- The Temple Mount of Jerusalem
Where were the First and Second Jewish Temples Located?
Highlighting the Research of Tel Aviv Architect Tuvia Sagiv. It also has lots of early maps and models of Jerusalem.
- Temple of Poseidon, University of Chicago Excavations at Isthmia
Shows the location and plan of the temple c. 60 A.D. (about the time Paul was in Corinth)
Paul, His Writings and Tradition
- Acts of Paul and Thecla, Translated probably by Jeremiah Jones (1693-1724)
A book that was in some early canons in the East written in the Pauline tradition. Women's leadership in the church, including baptizing, is affirmed. This version ends with Thecla's assumption in Syria.
- The Apostle Paul (Annotated Links) The New Testament Gateway
A key links page maintained by Dr. Mark Goodacre, the University of Birmingham
- Caring, Connecting, Creating in One Spirit: Bible Study on I Corinthians 12:4-31 by Diane Amanda Moseley, New World Outlook March-April, 2000
Paul is stressing that, with diversity, there is the call to work together for the common good. In the Body of Christ, gifts are given not for the private edification of the recipients but for the common good. To act as a Lone Ranger may be credible political philosophy in some circles, but it is bad theology and has little to do with the Gospel.
- The Deutero-Pauline Letters: Resources and Charts
by Prof. Felix Just, S.J. - Loyola Marymount University
Contents: Introduction and Definitions, Household Codes in the New Testament, Theological Differences between Colossians/Ephesians and Paul's Early Letters , Local Church Leadership in the Pastoral Epistles.
- Deutero-Pauline and Pastoral Epistles, Conflict and Community in the Corinthian Church
The Deutero-Pauline epistles are Colossians, Ephesians, and II Thessalonians. The Pastoral Epistles are I & II Timothy and Titus.
- Footsteps of Paul by Thomas Price and Allan Brockway
In addition to the contemporary map of the area where Paul traveled, the authors give a glimpse of present-day Aegean cities and landscapes and a feeling of Paul and the Hellenistic Roman world of the Emperor Nero.
- Letters from the Ancient World: Issues of Honor and Shame Permeate Paul's Letters, Sojourners Magazine, March-April 2000.
An article by Katrina Poetker, who teaches biblical and religious studies and anthropology at Fresno Pacific University in California. She says Paul used four primary metaphors that reveal how he envisioned the church and why divisions were inappropriate within it-- kinship, the human body, the church as God's building, and the field-- all of which contribute to his organic vision of connectedness and mutual dependence within the Christian community.
- No Acolyte of Rome: A New Look at the Apostle Paul , Sojourners Magazine, March-April 1998.
A readable article by by Neil Elliot, a professor of New Testament at the College of St. Catherine's in St. Paul, Minnesota, and the author of Liberating Paul (Orbis Books, 1994). He discusses these questions about Paul: Convert or Prophet?; Social Conservative or Radical?; Paul and Women: Colleague or Oppressor?; Paul and Rome: Apologist or Opponent?
- Paul and Pauline Epistles, The Text This Week
Lots of links
- Pauline Paradigms and Pauline Authenticity Institute for Higher Critical Studies
Scholarly article by Darrell J. Doughty, Drew University: "My primary concern here is not to demonstrate the redactional character of the Pauline writings, or even that these writings contain a variety of interpolations, but to clarify the historical and methodological assumptions that such views imply."
- Pauline Voices and Presence As Strategic Communication by Richard F. Ward
An article in a very scholarly style about how bodily presence and speech became issues in Paul's conflict with the Corinthian superapostles in the 50's C.E.. From the information presented in 2 Cor 10:10 and 11:6, it appears that Paul was deemed
ineffective in some form of public speech that jeopardized his claim to apostolic authority at Corinth. At the time this was written, the author was Clement-Muehl Associate Professor of Communication Arts at Yale Divinity School.
- Paul's Mission and Letters, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
Background taken from interviews with different biblical scholars on Who Was Paul? Paul in Corinth, Paul in Antioch, and much more.
- Scholarly Essays Online, Diotima
Some links to material related to Corinthians. Topics are: Ancient Near East, Greece, Rome, Late Antiquity, and Theory.
- Paul's Congregations, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
Paul's congregations were typically based in individual homes. The worship of an early Christian house church probably centered around the dinner table. A variety of different social levels were represented in these early Christian communities
- The Problems at Corinth, The Jewish Roman World of Jesus by Dr. James D. Tabor
A list of the problems and the scriptural references to them
- Roles for Women, PBS Frontline, "From Jesus to Christ"
A variety of scholars on women and house churches, Paul and Thecla, Paul and Galatians 3:28, and much more.
- Roman House Plan
Reconstructed model of the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, which was destroyed by a volcano in 79 C.E. Click on the rooms in this plan for more information about each area of the Roman house: atrium, cubiculum, culina, exedra, peristylium, taberna, tablinum, triclinium, vestibulum. This model represents that type of house where Corinthian Christians would have met. It is much bigger than most house churches would have been, however.
Sermons and Commentaries on Paul's Letters
These are arranged in chronological order by the date of birth.
- On the Apparel of Women, Christian Classics Ethereal Library
In the opening words before telling women what they should wear, Tertullian makes the following infamous remarks: "And do you not know that you are (each) an Eve? The sentence of God on this sex of yours lives in this age: the guilt must of necessity live too. You are the devil's gateway: you are the unsealer of that (forbidden) tree: you are the first deserter of the divine law: you are she who persuaded him whom the devil was not valiant enough to attack. You destroyed so easily God's image, man. On account of your desert-that is, death-even the Son of God had to die."
- On the Veiling of Virgins, Christian Classics Ethereal Library
Includes an interpretation of 1 Corinthians 11:5-16 and Of the Reasons Assigned by the Apostle for Bidding Women to Be Veiled, where he comments, "If 'the man is head of the woman,' of course (he is) of the virgin too, from whom comes the woman who has married; unless the virgin is a third generic class, some monstrosity with a head of its own."
John Chrysostom (c. 347-407)
Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758)
John Wesley (1703-1791)
Martin Luther King, Jr. (1929-1968)
- Paul's Letter to American Christians
A sermon delivered at Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, Montgomery, Alabama, on November 4, 1956.
Women, the Roman Empire, and Early Christianity
- More Information Is Here
Links to materials for and about young people.
Paul's Letters to the Corinthians
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"Corinthians Study Links" has been compiled by the Rev. Nancy A. Carter, Ph.D. Please send suggestions and corrections to her at email@example.com.
Dr. Carter has an M.Div. from Union Theological Seminary in New York City, where she won the Hitchcock Award in Church History. Her Ph.D. is in literary studies (literature and theology) from American University in Washington, D.C. She has authored books for church laity including Jesus in the Gospel of Matthew: Who Do You Say That I Am?, a spiritual growth study for United Methodist Women written with Bishop Leontine T. C. Kelly.