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Part I Biblical Scroll links to Bible 1. Part II Electronic Bible links to Part 2.
The Bible: The Book That Bridges the Millennia

Old Testament Apocrypha

(Protestant)

Broken Ancient Pots with Manuscripts

Roman Catholics, Greek Orthodox, and Ethiopian Orthodox churches include more books in their Old Testament canons than Protestants.

Protestants refer to these additional books as the Apocrypha and consider them to be "outside books" that nevertheless are valuable for instruction and spiritual edification.

Inside and Outside Terms

Roman Catholics use the term "Apocrypha" differently than Protestants:

  • Catholics consider all of the ancient Jewish and Christian "outside books" the Apocrypha.
  • Protestants call the Jewish "outside books," except the Old Testament Apocrypha, the Pseudepigrapha; they call the Christian "outside books" the New Testament Apocrypha.


Apocrypha

(Protestant)

1. Books & Additions to Esther in the Roman Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Slavonic Bibles

  • Tobit
  • Judith
  • Additions to the Book of Esther
  • Wisdom of Solomon
  • Ecclesiasticus (or the Wisdom of Jesus, Son or Sirach)
  • Baruch
  • The Letter of Jeremiah (Baruch ch. 6)
  • The Additions to the Greek Book of Daniel:
    The Prayer of Azariah and Song of the Three Jews
    Susanna
    Bel and the Dragon

  • 1 Maccabees
  • 2 Maccabees

2. Books & Additions to Esther in the Greek Orthodox, & Slavonic Bibles, not Roman Catholic

  • 1 Esdras (called 2 Esdras in Slavonic, 3 Esdras in Appendix to Vulgate)
  • Prayer of Manasseh (in Appendix to Vulgate)
  • Psalm 151, following Psalm 150 in the Greek Orthodox Bible
  • 3 Maccabees

3. Books in the Slavonic Bible & Appendix to Vulgate

  • 2 Esdras (called 3 Esdras in Slavonic and 4 Esdras in the Appendix to Vulgate)

Note: In the Latin Vulgate, Ezra-Nehemiah are called 1 and 2 Esdras

4. Books in Appendix to Greek Orthodox Bible

  • 4 Maccabees

   List is based on that of The New Oxford Annotated Bible with Apocrypha, New Revised Version, (1994)



For Further Study

Chart: Compare the Roman Catholic and Protestant Old Testaments

Chart: Ethiopian Orthodox Old Testament (Narrower Canon)

See Also: Whose Canon? Which Bible?